Single Reclist Korean Reclist + Pronunciation Guide

Essentials for Korean (as well as optional extras)

  1. 수연 <Suyeon>
    I've been slowly (emphasis on slow) working on my next bank which will be multi-pitch, multi-append Korean and decided to share the fruits of my labor with the community - the reclist. Hopefully anyone who uses this finds it to be comprehensive, useful, and a good update to Syo's list from 2012.

    What's included
    - All sounds necessary for modern Korean (standard Seoul dialect)
    - Optional English that was included (or missing) from SeeU's intended English recordings (will not fully replace the functionality of a proper English voicebank, but will make UST editing easier due to the frequency of English in commercial K-pop works)
    - Pronunciation guide including references to Japanese, English examples (General American/Received Pronunciation), IPA, and X-Sampa pronunciation.

    Mora Count
    1-3*
    *I prefer to record single recordings where possible and simply combine them into a single wav file. How you record this bank depends on your recording software of choice and convenience.

    FAQ

    - Why do I need Korean/Hangul in the pronunciation guide? -
    Anyone who owns SeeU (시유) or plans to get Uni (유니) will need to know how to read/type Korean to use them properly and will also need to know Korean for transliterating to romaja for UTAU. While many K-pop songs have romaja lyrics, not all of them are accurate or some will use McCune–Reischauer (North Korean romaja) over Revised Romanization (South Korean romaja - what we'll be using).

    - Why the underscores/dashes in the reclist? -
    Refer to the Mora Count. They simply allow me to easily edit a txt file for single string recordings (for ex. a single wav file for consonants that don't have morphemes such as m, n, or s). The dashes are for easy reading for Vowel-Vowel, not glottal stops/pauses.

    - Why the brackets next to certain sounds? -
    The brackets - assuming Seoul dialect is used (rather than differentiation for dialect/stylistic purpose) - is to let you know what sounds will require double/triple alias.

    References:
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_phonology
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-SAMPA
    - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revised_Romanization_of_Korean

    a ||아 = same pronunciation as Japanese あ
    IPA: /a/
    X-Sampa: a

    eo || 어 = same pronunciation as the u in words 'sun,' 'fun,' 'run.'
    IPA: /ʌ/
    X-Sampa: V

    o || 오 = closed pronunciation, similar to the o sound in 'owe'
    IPA: /o/
    X-Sampa: o

    u || 우 = similar to the o sound in 'who'
    IPA: /u/
    X-Sampa: u

    eu ||으 = same pronunciation as japanese う
    IPA: /ɯ/
    X-Sampa: M

    i || 이 = same pronunciation as japanese い
    IPA: /i/
    X-Sampa: i

    ae || 애 = in modern Seoul dialect, has the same pronunciation as 'e.' Traditionally pronounced with a higher palate, sounding a little closer to an @ sound (such as the word bat).
    IPA: /ɛ/
    X-Sampa: E

    e || 에 = same pronunciation as japanese え
    IPA: /e/
    X-Sampa: e

    oe || 외 = sounds like the word 'wet' without the t. Also romanized as oi. Sounds like both we and wae in Seoul dialect.
    IPA: /øː/
    X-Sampa: 2

    wi || 위 = combination of 'u' and 'i' sounds like Japanese うぃ
    IPA: /wi/

    we || 웨 = sounds like oe and wae in Seoul dialect
    IPA: /we/

    wae || 왜 = sounds like oe and we in Seoul dialect
    IPA: /wɛ/

    weo || 워 = sounds like the word 'won' (or the Korean dollar ₩). sometimes romanized as wo.

    ui || 의 = combination of 'eu' and 'i.' combined with a consonant, sounds like a nasalized 'i' sound. Transforms into an 'e' or 'ye' sound at the end of certain words - close listening and phoneme swaps will be necessary for UST creation. ex. 나의 (naui) na + ui or na + e (2nd pronunciation is informal and used more often in songs). Also romanized as eui.
    IPA: /ɰi/

    ng || ㅇ = ieung. In Korean writing, serves as a stand-in consonant for words that phonetically start with a vowel (proper written hangeul requires a consonant; vowels are never standalone). ex. 아이 (written as 'ai' in romaja) NOT ㅏㅣ, 아ㅣ, or ㅏ이. Secondary position transforms this into an 'ng' sound.
    IPA: ŋ
    X-Sampa: N

    ***

    ㄱ = giyeok. romanized as g and k. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated k. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated g. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated k.

    ㄴ = nieun. sounds like 'n' in all situations.

    ㄷ = digeut. romanized as d and t. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated t. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated d. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated t.

    ㄹ = rieul. romanized as r, ll, and l. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is 4 (aveolar tap). pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences - as well as the ending consonant - is l.

    ㅁ = mieum. romanized as m. sounds like m in all situations.

    ㅂ = bieup. romanized as p and b. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated p. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated b. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated p.

    ㅅ = siot. romanized as s and t. pronunciation is a soft s (mouth must be in the position to make an s sound, but teeth must not be touching). combined with 'i' or 'y,' pronunciation becomes a soft sh (like in 's,' teeth must not touch). when written in as a final consonant, 's' sound is replaced with 't.'

    ㅈ = jieut. romanized as j. initial pronunciation is a soft ch (tongue must be in the position to make a ch sound, but teeth must not be touching). in the middle of words, pronunciation is a soft j. when written in as a final consonant, 'ch' sound is replaced with 't.'

    ㅊ = chieut. romanized as ch. pronunciation is an aspirated ch sound. when written in as a final consonant, 'ch' sound is replaced with 't.'

    ㅋ = kieuk. romanized as k (k' or kh for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated k. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by giyeok (unaspirated k).

    ㅌ = tieut. romanized as t (t' or th for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated t. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by digeut (unaspirated t).

    ㅍ = pieup. romanized as p (p' or ph for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated p. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by bieup (unaspirated p).

    ㅎ = hieut. romanized as h. pronounced as h. when written as a final consonant, replaced by digeut (unaspirated t). if it comes after a patchim (final consonant) in the middle of a word, the preceeding consonant becomes aspirated. ex. 못해 (mothae = mo-t'ae)

    ㄲ = ssang giyeok (kk or gg). a sharp, forced unaspirated k. can be double aliased with initial ㄱ

    ㅆ = ssang siot (ss). a stronger 's' sound (without teeth meeting).

    ㄸ = ssang digeut (tt or dd). a sharp, forced unaspirated d. can be double aliased with secondary ㄷ

    ㅃ = ssang bieup (pp or bb) a sharp, forced unaspirated b. can be double aliased with secondary ㅂ

    ㅉ = ssang jieut. a stronger j sound, similar to English. For ex. judge or jeep

    ***

    v = not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

    f = not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

    R = English R. not native to Korean or included in SeeU's hidden phonemes. useful for Konglish.

    z = English z. not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

    c = English 's.' not native to korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes. this list expands it's use beyond SeeU's capabilities

    @r = ending 'er' sound such as the word 'singer.' not native to korean but included in SeeU hidden phonemes.

    -D = english 'th' sound such as 'this.' not native or korean or included in SeeU's hidden phonemes, but added for additional English capability.

    *** Standalone vowels and glides

    a_
    eo_
    o_
    u_
    eu_
    i_
    e_ [ae]
    ya_
    yeo_
    yo_
    yu_
    ye_ [yae]
    wa_
    oe_
    weo_
    wi_
    ui_

    *** Secondary ㅇ, ending consonant

    _dang
    _deong
    _dong
    _dung
    _deng [daeng]
    _deung
    _ding

    *** Vowel-Vowel. Optional for a shorter recording session, but generally recommended

    a-eo_
    a-o_
    a-u_
    a-eu_
    a-i_
    a-e_

    eo-a_
    eo-o_
    eo-u_
    eo-eu_
    eo-i_
    eo-e_

    o-a_
    o-eo_
    o-u_
    o-eu_
    o-i_
    o-e_

    u-a_
    u-eo_
    u-o_
    u-eu_
    u-i_
    u-e_

    eu-a_
    eu-eo_
    eu-o_
    eu-u_
    eu-i_
    eu-e_

    i-a_
    i-eo_
    i-o_
    i-u_
    i-eu_
    i-e_

    e-a_
    e-eo_
    e-o_
    e-u_
    e-eu_
    e-i_

    *** Initial-Secondary-Ending consonant (record final CVs shortly or the last [hard] consonant as a glottal stop depending on your preference).

    ga_kaka
    gya_kya
    geo_keokeo
    gyeo_kyeo
    go_koko
    gyo_kyo
    gu_kuku
    gyu_kyu
    geu_keukeu
    gi_kiki
    ge_keke [gae_kaekae]
    gye_kye [gyae_kyae]
    gwa_kwa
    goe_koe
    gweo_kweo
    gwi_kwi

    nan_
    neon_
    non_
    nun_
    neun_
    nin_
    nen_ [naen]
    nya_
    nyeo_
    nyo_
    nyu
    nwa_
    noe_
    nweo_
    nwi_
    nui_

    da_tata
    deo_teoteo
    dyeo_tyeo
    do_toto
    du_tutu
    dyu_tyu
    deu_teuteu
    di_titi
    de_tete
    doe_toe [dwae_twae]
    dweo_tweo
    dwi_twi

    ra_llal-
    rya_llya
    reo_lleol-
    ryeo_llyeo
    ro_llol-
    ru_llul-
    ryu_llyu
    reu_lleul-
    ri_llil-
    re_llel- [rae_llael]
    rye_llye
    roe_lloe
    rweo_llweo

    mam_
    meom_
    mom_
    mum_
    meum_
    mim_
    mem_ [maem]
    mya_
    myeo_
    myo_
    myu_
    moe_
    mweo_

    pa_bapa
    peo_beopeo
    pyeo_byeo
    po_bopo
    pyo_byo
    pu_bupu
    pyu_byu
    peu_beupeu
    pi_bipi
    pe_bepe [pae_baepae]
    pwa_bwa
    poe_boe
    pwi_bwi

    sa_
    seo_
    so_
    su_
    seu_
    si_
    se_ [sae]
    sya_
    syeo_
    syo_
    sye_ [syae]
    swa_
    soe_ [swe]
    sweo_
    swi_

    ja_ja
    jeo_jeo
    jo_jo
    ju_ju
    jeu_jeu
    ji_ji
    je_je [jae]
    jya_jya
    jyeo_jyeo
    jyo_jyo
    jyu_jyu
    jye_jye [jyae]
    jwa_jwa
    joe_joe
    jweo_jweo
    jwi_jwi

    cha_
    cheo_
    cho_
    chu_
    cheu_
    chi_
    che_
    chyeo_
    chyo_
    chyu_
    choe_ [chwe]
    chweo_
    chwi_

    kha_
    kheo_
    kho_
    khu_
    kheu_
    khi_
    khe_
    khya_
    khyeo_
    khyo_
    khyu_
    khwa_
    khwae_
    khweo_
    khwi_

    tha_
    theo_
    tho_
    thu_
    theu_
    thae_
    the_
    thyeo_
    thyu_
    thi_
    thoe_ [thwe]
    thwi_
    thui_

    pha_
    pheo_
    pho_
    phu_
    pheu_
    phi_
    phe_ [phae]
    phyeo_
    phyo_
    phyu_
    phye_
    phoe_

    ha_
    heo_
    ho_
    hu_
    heu_
    hi_
    he_ [hae]
    hyeo_
    hyo_
    hyu_
    hye_
    hwa_
    hoe_ [hwe, hwae]
    hweo_
    hwi_
    hui_

    *** kk/gg, tt/dd, and pp/bb may be double aliased using prior recordings for convenience; only ss and jj are truly phonetically different from s and j.

    kka_
    kkae_
    kko_
    kku_
    kkeu_
    kki_

    tta_
    ttae_
    tto_
    ttu_
    tteu_
    tti_

    ppa_
    ppae_
    ppeo_
    ppo_
    ppu_
    ppeu_
    ppi_

    ssa_
    ssae_
    sso_
    ssu_
    ssi_

    jja_
    jjae_
    jjo_
    jji_

    *** These aren't necessary for pure Korean, but is meant to expand capabilities where Konglish is concerned (English is used a lot in K-pop music). SeeU was intended to be tri-lingual with Korean, Japanese, and English. Uni will presumably release Korean this fall/winter and English next summer.

    vav_
    veov_
    vov_
    vuv_
    veuv_
    viv_
    vev_ (vaev)
    vya_
    vyeo_
    vyo_
    vyu_

    faf_
    feof_
    fof_
    fuf_
    feuf_
    fif_
    faef_
    fef_
    fya_
    fyeo_
    fyo_
    fyu_
    fla_
    fleo_
    flo_
    flu_
    fli_
    fle_ (flae)
    fra_
    freo_
    fro_
    fro_
    fri_
    fre_ (frae)

    -RaR_
    -ReoR_
    -RoR_
    -RuR_
    -ReuR_
    -RiR_
    -ReR_

    zaz_
    zeoz_
    zoz_
    zuz_
    zeuz_
    ziz_
    zez_ (zaez)
    zya_
    zyeo_
    zyo_
    zyu_

    cac_
    ceoc_
    coc_
    cuc_
    ceuc_
    cic_
    cec_ (caec)
    cya_
    cyeo_
    cyo_
    cyu_
    cwa_
    coe_ (cwae)
    cweo_
    cwi_
    cla_
    cleo_
    clo_
    clu_
    cli_
    cle_ (clae)
    cka_
    ckeo_
    cko_
    cku_
    cki_
    cke_ (ckae)
    cna_
    cneo_
    cno_
    cnu_
    cni_
    cne_ (cnae)
    cma_
    cmeo_
    cmo_
    cmu_
    cmi_
    cme_ (cmae)
    cpa_
    cpeo_
    cpo_
    cpu_
    cpi_
    cpe_ (cpae)
    cpla_
    cpleo_
    cplo_
    cplu_
    cpli_
    cple_ (cplae)
    cpra_
    cpreo_
    cpro_
    cpru_
    cpri_
    cpre_ (cprae)
    cta_
    cteo_
    cto_
    ctu_
    cti_
    cte_ (ctae)
    ctra_
    ctreo_
    ctro_
    ctru_
    ctri_
    ctre_ (ctrae)

    thra_
    threo_
    thro_
    thru_
    thri_
    thrae_
    thre_

    phla_
    phleo_
    phlo_
    phlu_
    phli_
    phle_ (phlae)
    phra_
    phreo_
    phro_
    phru_
    phri_
    phre_ (phrae)

    ppla_
    ppleo_
    pplo_
    pplu_
    ppli_
    pple (pplae)
    ppra_
    ppreo_
    ppro_
    ppru_
    ppri_
    ppre_ (pprae)

    kkla_
    kkleo_
    kklo_
    kklu_
    kkli_
    kkle_ (kklae)
    kkra_
    kkreo_
    kkro_
    kkru_
    kkri_
    kkre_ (kkrae)

    ttra_
    ttreo_
    ttro_
    ttru_
    ttri_
    ttre_ (ttrae)

    -DaD_
    -DeoD_
    -DoD_
    -DuD_
    -DeuD_
    -DiD_
    -DaeD_
    -DeD_
    -Dra_
    -Drae_
    -Droe_
    -Dreo_
    -Dri

    g@r_
    k@r_
    n@r_
    d@r_
    t@r_
    r@r_
    l@r_
    m@r_
    b@r_
    p@r_
    s@r_
    j@r_
    ch@r_
    kh@r_
    th@r_
    ph@r_
    h@r_
    v@r_
    w@r_
    f@r
    -R@r_
    z@r_
    c@r_
    -D@r

    What a bank may sound like using this reclist:


    NOTE: I am not Korean in ethnicity or nationality, nor do I speak it as a first language. I'm merely a lover of the language and South Korean media and am in the beginner's stages of learning it.

    NOTE 2: With the least amount of recordings (no differentiation between e/ae/we/wae/oe/ye/yae, skipping kk, tt, pp, skipping VV, and omitting all extras) the amount needed for Korean is potentially 215 samples. The full bank as currently presented (for the over achieving lot) is 484 samples.

    LATEST EDITS MADE:
    - addition of wi in pronunciation guide
    - correction of oe's hangeul equivalent