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Single Reclist Korean Reclist + Pronunciation Guide

I've been slowly (emphasis on slow) working on my next bank which will be multi-pitch, multi-append Korean and decided to share the fruits of my labor with the community - the reclist. Hopefully anyone who uses this finds it to be comprehensive, useful, and a good update to Syo's list from 2012.

What's included
- All sounds necessary for modern Korean (standard Seoul dialect)
- Optional English that was included (or missing) from SeeU's intended English recordings (will not fully replace the functionality of a proper English voicebank, but will make UST editing easier due to the frequency of English in commercial K-pop works)
- Pronunciation guide including references to Japanese, English examples (General American/Received Pronunciation), IPA, and X-Sampa pronunciation.

Mora Count
1-3*
*I prefer to record single recordings where possible and simply combine them into a single wav file. How you record this bank depends on your recording software of choice and convenience.

FAQ

- Why do I need Korean/Hangul in the pronunciation guide? -
Anyone who owns SeeU (시유) or plans to get Uni (유니) will need to know how to read/type Korean to use them properly and will also need to know Korean for transliterating to romaja for UTAU. While many K-pop songs have romaja lyrics, not all of them are accurate or some will use McCune–Reischauer (North Korean romaja) over Revised Romanization (South Korean romaja - what we'll be using).

- Why the underscores/dashes in the reclist? -
Refer to the Mora Count. They simply allow me to easily edit a txt file for single string recordings (for ex. a single wav file for consonants that don't have morphemes such as m, n, or s). The dashes are for easy reading for Vowel-Vowel, not glottal stops/pauses.

- Why the brackets next to certain sounds? -
The brackets - assuming Seoul dialect is used (rather than differentiation for dialect/stylistic purpose) - is to let you know what sounds will require double/triple alias.

References:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_phonology
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-SAMPA
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revised_Romanization_of_Korean

a ||아 = same pronunciation as Japanese あ
IPA: /a/
X-Sampa: a

eo || 어 = same pronunciation as the u in words 'sun,' 'fun,' 'run.'
IPA: /ʌ/
X-Sampa: V

o || 오 = closed pronunciation, similar to the o sound in 'owe'
IPA: /o/
X-Sampa: o

u || 우 = similar to the o sound in 'who'
IPA: /u/
X-Sampa: u

eu ||으 = same pronunciation as japanese う
IPA: /ɯ/
X-Sampa: M

i || 이 = same pronunciation as japanese い
IPA: /i/
X-Sampa: i

ae || 애 = in modern Seoul dialect, has the same pronunciation as 'e.' Traditionally pronounced with a higher palate, sounding a little closer to an @ sound (such as the word bat).
IPA: /ɛ/
X-Sampa: E

e || 에 = same pronunciation as japanese え
IPA: /e/
X-Sampa: e

oe || 외 = sounds like the word 'wet' without the t. Also romanized as oi. Sounds like both we and wae in Seoul dialect.
IPA: /øː/
X-Sampa: 2

wi || 위 = combination of 'u' and 'i' sounds like Japanese うぃ
IPA: /wi/

we || 웨 = sounds like oe and wae in Seoul dialect
IPA: /we/

wae || 왜 = sounds like oe and we in Seoul dialect
IPA: /wɛ/

weo || 워 = sounds like the word 'won' (or the Korean dollar ₩). sometimes romanized as wo.

ui || 의 = combination of 'eu' and 'i.' combined with a consonant, sounds like a nasalized 'i' sound. Transforms into an 'e' or 'ye' sound at the end of certain words - close listening and phoneme swaps will be necessary for UST creation. ex. 나의 (naui) na + ui or na + e (2nd pronunciation is informal and used more often in songs). Also romanized as eui.
IPA: /ɰi/

ng || ㅇ = ieung. In Korean writing, serves as a stand-in consonant for words that phonetically start with a vowel (proper written hangeul requires a consonant; vowels are never standalone). ex. 아이 (written as 'ai' in romaja) NOT ㅏㅣ, 아ㅣ, or ㅏ이. Secondary position transforms this into an 'ng' sound.
IPA: ŋ
X-Sampa: N

***

ㄱ = giyeok. romanized as g and k. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated k. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated g. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated k.

ㄴ = nieun. sounds like 'n' in all situations.

ㄷ = digeut. romanized as d and t. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated t. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated d. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated t.

ㄹ = rieul. romanized as r, ll, and l. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is 4 (aveolar tap). pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences - as well as the ending consonant - is l.

ㅁ = mieum. romanized as m. sounds like m in all situations.

ㅂ = bieup. romanized as p and b. initial pronunciation (beginning of words) is unaspirated p. pronunciation in the middle of words/sentences is an unaspirated b. ending consonant is pronounced as an unaspirated p.

ㅅ = siot. romanized as s and t. pronunciation is a soft s (mouth must be in the position to make an s sound, but teeth must not be touching). combined with 'i' or 'y,' pronunciation becomes a soft sh (like in 's,' teeth must not touch). when written in as a final consonant, 's' sound is replaced with 't.'

ㅈ = jieut. romanized as j. initial pronunciation is a soft ch (tongue must be in the position to make a ch sound, but teeth must not be touching). in the middle of words, pronunciation is a soft j. when written in as a final consonant, 'ch' sound is replaced with 't.'

ㅊ = chieut. romanized as ch. pronunciation is an aspirated ch sound. when written in as a final consonant, 'ch' sound is replaced with 't.'

ㅋ = kieuk. romanized as k (k' or kh for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated k. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by giyeok (unaspirated k).

ㅌ = tieut. romanized as t (t' or th for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated t. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by digeut (unaspirated t).

ㅍ = pieup. romanized as p (p' or ph for the sake of utau alias). pronounced as an aspirated p. when written in as a final consonant, phonetically replaced by bieup (unaspirated p).

ㅎ = hieut. romanized as h. pronounced as h. when written as a final consonant, replaced by digeut (unaspirated t). if it comes after a patchim (final consonant) in the middle of a word, the preceeding consonant becomes aspirated. ex. 못해 (mothae = mo-t'ae)

ㄲ = ssang giyeok (kk or gg). a sharp, forced unaspirated k. can be double aliased with initial ㄱ

ㅆ = ssang siot (ss). a stronger 's' sound (without teeth meeting).

ㄸ = ssang digeut (tt or dd). a sharp, forced unaspirated d. can be double aliased with secondary ㄷ

ㅃ = ssang bieup (pp or bb) a sharp, forced unaspirated b. can be double aliased with secondary ㅂ

ㅉ = ssang jieut. a stronger j sound, similar to English. For ex. judge or jeep

***

v = not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

f = not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

R = English R. not native to Korean or included in SeeU's hidden phonemes. useful for Konglish.

z = English z. not native to Korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes.

c = English 's.' not native to korean, but included in SeeU's hidden phonemes. this list expands it's use beyond SeeU's capabilities

@r = ending 'er' sound such as the word 'singer.' not native to korean but included in SeeU hidden phonemes.

-D = english 'th' sound such as 'this.' not native or korean or included in SeeU's hidden phonemes, but added for additional English capability.

*** Standalone vowels and glides

a_
eo_
o_
u_
eu_
i_
e_ [ae]
ya_
yeo_
yo_
yu_
ye_ [yae]
wa_
oe_
weo_
wi_
ui_

*** Secondary ㅇ, ending consonant

_dang
_deong
_dong
_dung
_deng [daeng]
_deung
_ding

*** Vowel-Vowel. Optional for a shorter recording session, but generally recommended

a-eo_
a-o_
a-u_
a-eu_
a-i_
a-e_

eo-a_
eo-o_
eo-u_
eo-eu_
eo-i_
eo-e_

o-a_
o-eo_
o-u_
o-eu_
o-i_
o-e_

u-a_
u-eo_
u-o_
u-eu_
u-i_
u-e_

eu-a_
eu-eo_
eu-o_
eu-u_
eu-i_
eu-e_

i-a_
i-eo_
i-o_
i-u_
i-eu_
i-e_

e-a_
e-eo_
e-o_
e-u_
e-eu_
e-i_

*** Initial-Secondary-Ending consonant (record final CVs shortly or the last [hard] consonant as a glottal stop depending on your preference).

ga_kaka
gya_kya
geo_keokeo
gyeo_kyeo
go_koko
gyo_kyo
gu_kuku
gyu_kyu
geu_keukeu
gi_kiki
ge_keke [gae_kaekae]
gye_kye [gyae_kyae]
gwa_kwa
goe_koe
gweo_kweo
gwi_kwi

nan_
neon_
non_
nun_
neun_
nin_
nen_ [naen]
nya_
nyeo_
nyo_
nyu
nwa_
noe_
nweo_
nwi_
nui_

da_tata
deo_teoteo
dyeo_tyeo
do_toto
du_tutu
dyu_tyu
deu_teuteu
di_titi
de_tete
doe_toe [dwae_twae]
dweo_tweo
dwi_twi

ra_llal-
rya_llya
reo_lleol-
ryeo_llyeo
ro_llol-
ru_llul-
ryu_llyu
reu_lleul-
ri_llil-
re_llel- [rae_llael]
rye_llye
roe_lloe
rweo_llweo

mam_
meom_
mom_
mum_
meum_
mim_
mem_ [maem]
mya_
myeo_
myo_
myu_
moe_
mweo_

pa_bapa
peo_beopeo
pyeo_byeo
po_bopo
pyo_byo
pu_bupu
pyu_byu
peu_beupeu
pi_bipi
pe_bepe [pae_baepae]
pwa_bwa
poe_boe
pwi_bwi

sa_
seo_
so_
su_
seu_
si_
se_ [sae]
sya_
syeo_
syo_
sye_ [syae]
swa_
soe_ [swe]
sweo_
swi_

ja_ja
jeo_jeo
jo_jo
ju_ju
jeu_jeu
ji_ji
je_je [jae]
jya_jya
jyeo_jyeo
jyo_jyo
jyu_jyu
jye_jye [jyae]
jwa_jwa
joe_joe
jweo_jweo
jwi_jwi

cha_
cheo_
cho_
chu_
cheu_
chi_
che_
chyeo_
chyo_
chyu_
choe_ [chwe]
chweo_
chwi_

kha_
kheo_
kho_
khu_
kheu_
khi_
khe_
khya_
khyeo_
khyo_
khyu_
khwa_
khwae_
khweo_
khwi_

tha_
theo_
tho_
thu_
theu_
thae_
the_
thyeo_
thyu_
thi_
thoe_ [thwe]
thwi_
thui_

pha_
pheo_
pho_
phu_
pheu_
phi_
phe_ [phae]
phyeo_
phyo_
phyu_
phye_
phoe_

ha_
heo_
ho_
hu_
heu_
hi_
he_ [hae]
hyeo_
hyo_
hyu_
hye_
hwa_
hoe_ [hwe, hwae]
hweo_
hwi_
hui_

*** kk/gg, tt/dd, and pp/bb may be double aliased using prior recordings for convenience; only ss and jj are truly phonetically different from s and j.

kka_
kkae_
kko_
kku_
kkeu_
kki_

tta_
ttae_
tto_
ttu_
tteu_
tti_

ppa_
ppae_
ppeo_
ppo_
ppu_
ppeu_
ppi_

ssa_
ssae_
sso_
ssu_
ssi_

jja_
jjae_
jjo_
jji_

*** These aren't necessary for pure Korean, but is meant to expand capabilities where Konglish is concerned (English is used a lot in K-pop music). SeeU was intended to be tri-lingual with Korean, Japanese, and English. Uni will presumably release Korean this fall/winter and English next summer.

vav_
veov_
vov_
vuv_
veuv_
viv_
vev_ (vaev)
vya_
vyeo_
vyo_
vyu_

faf_
feof_
fof_
fuf_
feuf_
fif_
faef_
fef_
fya_
fyeo_
fyo_
fyu_
fla_
fleo_
flo_
flu_
fli_
fle_ (flae)
fra_
freo_
fro_
fro_
fri_
fre_ (frae)

-RaR_
-ReoR_
-RoR_
-RuR_
-ReuR_
-RiR_
-ReR_

zaz_
zeoz_
zoz_
zuz_
zeuz_
ziz_
zez_ (zaez)
zya_
zyeo_
zyo_
zyu_

cac_
ceoc_
coc_
cuc_
ceuc_
cic_
cec_ (caec)
cya_
cyeo_
cyo_
cyu_
cwa_
coe_ (cwae)
cweo_
cwi_
cla_
cleo_
clo_
clu_
cli_
cle_ (clae)
cka_
ckeo_
cko_
cku_
cki_
cke_ (ckae)
cna_
cneo_
cno_
cnu_
cni_
cne_ (cnae)
cma_
cmeo_
cmo_
cmu_
cmi_
cme_ (cmae)
cpa_
cpeo_
cpo_
cpu_
cpi_
cpe_ (cpae)
cpla_
cpleo_
cplo_
cplu_
cpli_
cple_ (cplae)
cpra_
cpreo_
cpro_
cpru_
cpri_
cpre_ (cprae)
cta_
cteo_
cto_
ctu_
cti_
cte_ (ctae)
ctra_
ctreo_
ctro_
ctru_
ctri_
ctre_ (ctrae)

thra_
threo_
thro_
thru_
thri_
thrae_
thre_

phla_
phleo_
phlo_
phlu_
phli_
phle_ (phlae)
phra_
phreo_
phro_
phru_
phri_
phre_ (phrae)

ppla_
ppleo_
pplo_
pplu_
ppli_
pple (pplae)
ppra_
ppreo_
ppro_
ppru_
ppri_
ppre_ (pprae)

kkla_
kkleo_
kklo_
kklu_
kkli_
kkle_ (kklae)
kkra_
kkreo_
kkro_
kkru_
kkri_
kkre_ (kkrae)

ttra_
ttreo_
ttro_
ttru_
ttri_
ttre_ (ttrae)

-DaD_
-DeoD_
-DoD_
-DuD_
-DeuD_
-DiD_
-DaeD_
-DeD_
-Dra_
-Drae_
-Droe_
-Dreo_
-Dri

g@r_
k@r_
n@r_
d@r_
t@r_
r@r_
l@r_
m@r_
b@r_
p@r_
s@r_
j@r_
ch@r_
kh@r_
th@r_
ph@r_
h@r_
v@r_
w@r_
f@r
-R@r_
z@r_
c@r_
-D@r

What a bank may sound like using this reclist:

NOTE: I am not Korean in ethnicity or nationality, nor do I speak it as a first language. I'm merely a lover of the language and South Korean media and am in the beginner's stages of learning it.

NOTE 2: With the least amount of recordings (no differentiation between e/ae/we/wae/oe/ye/yae, skipping kk, tt, pp, skipping VV, and omitting all extras) the amount needed for Korean is potentially 215 samples. The full bank as currently presented (for the over achieving lot) is 484 samples.

LATEST EDITS MADE:
- addition of wi in pronunciation guide
- correction of oe's hangeul equivalent
Author
수연 <Suyeon>
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